Glossary

Resource Definitions:

2P
Proved plus probable reserves.
API gravity
American Petroleum Institute gravity is a measure of the relative density of a petroleum liquid, expressed in degrees.
BBLS
Barrels of petroleum product is the common unit for measuring petroleum, with one barrel containing approximately 159 litres.
Bitumen
Bitumen is a black, oily, viscous material that is a naturally occurring organic by-product of decomposed organic materials. It is also known as asphalt or tar. Crude bitumen consists mainly of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons and may contain sulphur and other non-hydrocarbon compounds.
Bitumen blend
Bitumen blend includes upgraded heavy sour crude oil and bitumen to which light oil fractions (i.e., diluent or upgraded crude oil) have been added to reduce viscosity and density to meet pipeline specifications.
BPD
Barrels of petroleum product per day.
Carbonate
Rock formed from the hard parts of marine organisms. It consists mainly of calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. Cavalier areas referred to as “other carbonates” include House, Granor, Orchid, and Saleski.
Clastic
Rock derived from mechanical process and made up of pieces of older rock, generally sandstone, siltstone, or shale.
Cogeneration
A process that uses heat generated from clean-burning natural gas to produce both steam and electricity.
Condensate
A mixture of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons that are in the gaseous state under reservoir conditions and become liquid when temperature or pressure is reduced; often blended into bitumen to reduce viscosity and increase density.
Contingent resources
The Canadian Oil and Gas Evaluation Handbook (COGE Handbook) defines contingent resources as quantities of petroleum estimated as of a given date, to be potentially recoverable from known accumulations using established technology under development, but which are not currently considered to be commercially recoverable due to one or more contingencies. Contingencies may include factors such as economic, legal, environmental, political, and regulatory matters, or lack of markets. It is appropriate to classify the estimated discoverable recoverable quantities associated with a project in early evaluation status as contingent resources.
Core hole
A cylindrical sample drilled from subsurface areas to analyze the characteristics of a resource base.
Crude oil
A naturally occurring liquid petroleum.
Cumulative steam oil ratio (CSOR)
The cumulative ratio of steam injected (in cold water equivalent) to oil produced for a SAGD well pair over the life of the well or scheme.
Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS)
A method of producing heavy oil that involves injecting steam, allowing time for the steam to heat and soften the heavy oil, and producing the oil from the same wellbore used to inject the steam.
Darcy
A measure of rock permeability, which is the degree to which natural gas and crude oil can move through the rocks.
Density
The mass of matter per unit volume.
Dilbit
A blend of diluent and bitumen.
Diluent
Lighter-viscosity petroleum products used to dilute bitumen for transportation in pipelines.
Dolomite
A sedimentary rock rich in calcium carbonate and magnesium, in which oil or gas reservoirs are often found; originating as limestone but transformed into dolomite through exposure to water of high salinity. See also limestone.
Downstream
The segment of the petroleum industry involved in crude oil refining and marketing of refined products.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
Any method that increases oil production by using techniques or materials that are not part of normal pressure maintenance or water flooding operations. For example, natural gas can be injected into a reservoir to enhance or increase oil production.
Exploration
Searching for potential subsurface reservoirs of gas or oil through various methods, including the use of magnetometers, gravity meters, seismic exploration, surface mapping, and exploratory drilling.
Formation
A designated subsurface layer substantially composed of the same kind of rock or rock types.
Groundwater
Water accumulations below the Earth’s surface that supply wells and springs.
Heavy crude oil
Crude oil with a density of 900 kilograms or more per cubic metre.
Horizontal drilling
Drilling horizontally through a reservoir to increase the exposure of the formation to the well.
Hydrocarbons
A large class of liquid, solid, or gaseous organic compounds, containing only carbon and hydrogen, which are the basis of almost all petroleum products.
In situ
From the Latin “in place,” a process for recovering bitumen from oilsands by means other than surface mining, such as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD).
Limestone
Calcium carbonate; rich sedimentary rocks in which oil or gas reservoirs are often found.
Midstream
The segment of the petroleum industry involved in transportation, blending and storage of crude oil.
MW
Megawatt, a unit of electrical power generation capability.
Oilsands
Deposits containing a mixture of bitumen, sand, and water that are naturally occurring and found mainly in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake areas of Alberta.
Permeability
The capacity of a reservoir rock to transmit fluids; the ease with which fluids can pass through a rock.
Porosity
The capacity of a reservoir to store fluids; the volume of the pore space within a reservoir.
Propane
A component of natural gas consisting of three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms that condenses into a liquid at relatively low temperature and pressure.
Ramp-up
The period after physical completion of construction of a project, during which steam injection begins and bitumen production begins to increase toward design capacity.
Reclamation
The return of disturbed surface landforms and vegetation to a state similar to that before industrial activity took place.
SAGD
Steam-assisted gravity drainage, an in situ process used to recover bitumen from oil sands.
Sandstone
A compacted sedimentary rock composed mainly of quartz or feldspar; a common rock in which oil, natural gas and/or water accumulate.
Sedimentary basin
A geographical area, such as the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, in which much of the rock is sedimentary (as opposed to igneous or metamorphic) and is therefore likely to contain hydrocarbons.
Seismic
Involves collecting data on induced shock wave reflections from underground layers of rock, used to create detailed models of the underlying geological structure. This data is used to help determine the most optimal location for drilling wells.
Solvent
Refers to lighter hydrocarbons such as propane, butane and condensate or mixtures thereof.
Stakeholders
Those people with an interest in industry activities. They may include nearby landowners, municipalities, Aboriginal communities, recreational land users, other industries, environmental groups, governments, and regulators.
Steam injection
A technique in which steam is injected into a reservoir to reduce the viscosity of the crude oil.
Steam-to-oil ratio (SOR)
An operating parameter used to monitor the efficiency of oil production based on steam injection. It measures the volume of steam required to produce one unit volume of oil.
Thermal recovery
The application of heat to a petroleum reservoir in order to alter the physical properties of the crude oil, such as viscosity, specific gravity, and interfacial tension, so it can be brought to surface.
Viscosity
The resistance to flow or “stickiness” of a fluid.